Luxor Temple



he bee is a symbol of lower Egypt and is seen in temple carvings; honey were the tears of Ra; Neith was The Veiled Goddess and cited to be the mother of Ra; Neith’s temple was the House of the Bee and is where Plato heard of the account of Atlantis; bees are hymenoptera, stemming from hymen, meaning “veil winged”; Osiris’s sanctuary was The Mansion of the Bee; beginning with the first dynasty, pharaohs held the title of The Beekeeper; tomb paintings show that bees were part of daily life; there is a bee hieroglyph; predynastic rock carvings show antennaed head dresses and dancing women; the step pyramids look like hives; pharaonic headdresses (death masks) have bee-like striping;











The statue of Ephesus Artemis


represents one of the copies of the cult statue of Artemis worshiped in the sanctuary of Ephesus, which is known only through reproductions and, in particular, from the coins issued by the city’s mint beginning from Hellenistic times.

The goddess is depicted rigidly upright and stretches out her arms; on her head she wears a polos in the shape of a tower with arched gateways, from the sides of which emerges a disc, decorated with four protoms of winged lions on each side. She wears a breastplate on which, in bas relief, there are the signs of the zodiac of Leo, Cancer, Gemini, Libra and Sagitarius, and a necklace from which hang acorns. The bust supports four rows of breasts as a fertility symbol or, in the opinion of other scholars, the scrotum’s of bulls which were ritually sacrificed to the goddess.


The tight-fitting dress on her legs is decorated at the front with protoms of lions, bulls and winged horses which jut out, set within five overlapping squares while, along the sides, it is decorated by winged sirens, rosettes, sphinxes and bees; the latter are also repeated in the lower part of the dress at the point where it opens to reveal the tunic below which opens fanlike to show her feet. The sleeves of the goddess are decorated with three lions rampant. The face, hands and feet are made of bronze, the result of restoration by Valadier, who was also responsible, together with Albacini, for the polos, part of the halo and the lower part of the body; the restoration work was carried out when the statue was trasferred from Rome to Naples, where the statue was displayed for the first time.

Artemis was one of the most widely venerated deities in ancient Greece; she was the Hellenic goddess of (among other things) forests and hills, fertility and the hunt. “Luxurious” doesn’t begin to do justice to the work. It is a complex ensemble of Roman iconography and the result of a revitalization of the cult of Artemis promoted by Roman emperors Trajan and Hadrian.

Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. She was the Hellenic goddess of forests and hills, child birth, virginity, fertility, the hunt, and often was depicted as a huntress carrying a bow and arrows. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her.


 The Monument: frieze 




he sculpture on the west panel of the pedestal, facing Fish Street Hill, is a basso-relievo by Caius Gabriel Cibber, the sculptor, which represents the King affording protection to the desolate City and, freedom to its rebuilders and inhabitants.

The design is allegorical and displays a female figure, representing the City of London, sitting on ruins in a languishing condition, her head hanging down, her hair dishevelled and her left hand lying carelessly upon her sword; behind is Time with his wings and bald head, gradually raising her up. Another female figure by her side gently touches her with one hand and, with a winged sceptre in the other, points upwards to two goddesses sitting in the clouds, one with a cornucopia, denoting Plenty, the other having a palm branch in her left hand, signifying Peace. At her feet is a bee-hive, denoting Industry, (Hence The Bee Keeper or Queen Bee)  by which the greatest difficulties can be surmounted. Beneath the figure of London, in the midst of the ruins, is a dragon supporting a shield bearing the arms of the City of London. Over her head are shown houses burning and flames breaking out through the windows. Behind Time is a group of citizens raising -their hands in encouragement.

Opposite these figures is a pavement of stone raised with three or four steps, on which stands King Charles II in Roman costume, with a baton in his right hand and a laurel wreath on his head, corning towards the City of London, and commanding three of his attendants to descend to her relief. The first represents Science, with a winged head and a circle of naked boys dancing on it, and in her hand a figure of Nature with her numerous breasts ready to give assistance to all. The second is Architecture holding in the right hand a plan, and in the left, a square and compasses. The third figure is Liberty waving a cap in the air.

Behind the King stands his brother, the Duke of York, holding in one hand a garland to crown the rising city, and in the other an uplifted sword for her defense.The two figures behind are justice with a coronet, and Fortitude with a reined lion. Above these figures are represented houses in building and laborer’s at work. Lastly, underneath the stone pavement on which the King stands, is a figure of Envy gnawing a heart and emitting contagious fumes from her envenomed mouth.




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